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Rare types of diabetes

Rare types of diabetes

There are MODY, LADA, ketosis-prone diabetes, and other forms of diabetes.

Louis Ochoa

August 28, 2022 | | reading time: 4 minutes

Diabetes is a common condition and affects a significant proportion of people in clinical practice. Photo: shutterstock.

In general, the diabetic Type 1 occurs in The patients Young and thin, with obvious symptoms polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), while the diabetic Type 2 usually affects older people who are overweight and, in general, are initially treated with oral medications.

MODY: When presentation is atypical, other forms of treatment should be considered. diabeticfor example, the beginning of a file diabetic Midlife event (MODY) in a young, thin individual with mild hyperglycaemia and a strong family history diabetic It was diagnosed at an early age.

LADA: In thin, middle-aged adults with hyperglycemia, this should be considered diabetic Autoimmune diseases (LADA). If the patient is overweight and obese, then suspicion is required. diabetic susceptible to CAD.

The diabetic MODY type is a group of monogenic beta-cell disorders, also known as diabetic Monogenic, characterized by early age onset, autosomal dominant translocation, absence of autoimmune markers, absence of insulin resistance and insulin independence.

Estimated to represent 1% to 2% of The patients diagnosed diabetic. However, this may be significantly understated and these numbers are not considered accurate until screening studies have been conducted in the general population. mutations more subscriber They are hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1a, 52%), glucokinase (GCK, 32%), and HNF4a (10%).

On the other hand, LADA is a heterogeneous state that shares the characteristics of T1D and T2D. It usually presents as T2D but is associated with progression to early insulin therapy. It is debated whether LADA is a distinct entity or just part of the T1D spectrum.

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Studies show that LADA accounts for 2% to 12% of cases presenting in adulthood. Compared to T2D, people with LADA tend to be younger, thinner, and have a personal or family history of autoimmune disease.

Features of the metabolic syndrome tend to be present at a similar or higher frequency in LADA than in T1D.

It has significant heterogeneity and sometimes its phenotype and characteristics are indistinguishable from T1D or T2D. LADA was thought to be a more insidious presentation of T1D, but unlike typical T1D, it does not present acutely with DKA or as a diabetic emergency requiring insulin.

In general, it appears from the age of 30 years, regardless of insulin at the time of diagnosis, for more than 6 months, and the presence of positive autoantibodies to diabetic.

The diabetic Prone to ketosis characterized by DKA in The patients which do not fit the typical characteristics of T1D. After initial insulin therapy and improvement in glycemic control, there is often a marked improvement in beta-cell function, allowing discontinuation of insulin therapy within a few months. In this The patientsthere is a sharp decrease in the secretion and action of insulin due to the toxicity of glucose on the beta cells.

Insulin therapy can improve hyperglycemia and beta-cell function, thus ending the need for further insulin therapy within months.

In conclusion, the diabetic It is a common condition and affects a greater proportion of people than clinical practice. Although a general practitioner will be familiar with presentations of T2D and T1D, it is important to consider other, less common forms. subscriber From diabetic And if the presentation is atypical, other forms of infection should be suspected. diabetic Consultation with the specialist team at an early stage.

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Consulting resource over here.